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2017-2018 Lugares, Histórias » Cinema Cem Anos de Juventude
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2017-2018 Lugares, Histórias

 

2017-2018 : Lugares, Histórias

TEMA

 1. Dois pólos: contar / mostrar

O cinema oscila desde a sua origem entre os lugares que nos mostra e as histórias que nos conta.

Muitas histórias de cinema nascem de lugares concretos que as inspiraram.

Outras, mais racionais, têm necessidade de encontrar um lugar real para se incarnarem num filme.

O cinema faz-se frequentemente entre estes dois pólos:o do lugar onde evoluem as personagens e o da história que elas vivem no argumento.

A personagem do pequeno Ahmad de Onde fica a casa do meu amigo de Kiarostami não existiria sem a realidade concreta de duas aldeias da montanha entre as quais ele faz idas e voltas. O argumento de A sombra do caçador de Charles Laughton é também aquele dos lugares simbólicos que as duas crianças atravessam: a casa da mãe, a cave, o rio, a granja, a casa da senhora velha que os acolhe.

2. Um lugar, no cinema, não é um simples decore, nem apenas um espaço

Em primeiro, um lugar não é “genérico”. Não é a colina, ou o jardim, mas aquela colina precisa, aquele jardim único entre todos os jardins.

Um lugar é forçosamente circunscrito, delimitado, singular. Um país, uma cidade , não são lugares.

O espaço é uma noção objectiva e homogénea. As características de um espaço revelam geometria e são as mesmas para todos. Um lugar, pelo contrario, é feito de lembranças, de afectos, diferentes para cada um, de ressonâncias pessoais.

Um lugar existe só para um individuo, ou uma pequena comunidade, que tem uma experiência directa, e quase sempre afectiva. Um lugar tem uma memória, uma história, muitas vezes um nome para aquele ou aqueles a quem ele importa.

Os lugares, quando não são puros decores, contam também a sua própria história, aquela da sua memória e da sua cultura.

O lugar é o que conecta o real, a imaginação e a memória. Aquilo que constitui a essência própria do cinema.

3. Os espaços pessoais no espaço comum

Michel Foucault inventou o conceito de heterotopia que é bastante claro para pensar a relação entre o espaço objectivo, homogéneo, e os espaços heterogéneos que os homens isolam. A infância é o momento da vida onde esse trabalho de privatização afectiva de espaços pessoais no espaço comum é mais activo e produtivo. Muitos romances e filmes o testemunham. Eu penso, entre outros, no Espírito da colmeia de Victor Erice, no Zero em comportamento de Jean Vigo, e em tantos outros que iremos procurar juntos. O filme póstumo de Manoel de Oliveira, Visita ou Memórias e confissões, é o mais puro dos exemplares: o seu argumento, é o próprio lugar.

Alain Bergala 21/07/17

REGRAS DO JOGO

Para ajudar à realização de cada exercício e do filme-ensaio, indicaremos excertos de filmes dentro da tipologia que devem ser vistos por todos os alunos (em função da sua idade). Esses excertos serão colocados online.

Os lugares filmados devem ser lugares escolhidos no exterior dos estabelecimentos escolares. Se tiverem que ser filmados dentro do recinto das escolas, no caso da impossibilidade de sair (para os  exercícios), os alunos devem tentar descobrir lugares na sua escola diferentes dos lugares comuns (sala de aula, recreio, etc).

EXERCÍCIOS :

O exercício 1 deve ser realizado por todos os alunos. Se faltar tempo para realizar os 3 exercícios com o conjunto de alunos, os exercício 2 e 3 devem ser realizados cada um por um grupo diferente.

1/ Exercício individual (ou em pares), se possível fora do tempo escolar: Apresentem um lugar que seja importante para vocês, fotografando-o (3 ou 4 fotografias) ou filmando-o (de 1 a 4 planos, no total de 2 minutos máximo). Estejam atentos para perceber a sensação que oferece esse lugar. O lugar é apresentado sem personagem de ficção.

2/ Exercício com um grupo pequeno: Escolham um lugar e filmem a entrada nesse lugar: um pouco antes e no momento de entrada. Máximo 2 minutos. O lugar escolhido deve ser, se possível, um dos lugares encontrados para o primeiro exercício.

3/ Exercício com um grupo pequeno: Filmem um lugar no presente, introduzindo uma outra temporalidade (por exemplo do passado). Isto deve passar principalmente (mas não exclusivamente) por um trabalho sobre a banda sonora (voz, sons, música…), o som e a imagem podem ser assíncronos. Máximo 2 minutos.

FILME-ENSAIO

Realizar um filme onde alguém dá a conhecer a uma (ou mais) pessoa(s) um lugar que conheça. Esta descoberta do lugar deve estar associada a uma questão afectiva pessoal de uma das personagens.

Reinvestir no filme o trabalho dos exercícios sobre a filmagem do lugar.

Duração do filme (genérico incluído): 5 a 10 minutos máximo.